A large number of structures especially in high humidity environments are endangered by Alkali–Silica Reaction (ASR). ASR leads to the formation of an expansive gel that imbibes water over time. The gel expansion causes cracking and consequent deterioration of concrete mechanical behavior in the form of strength and stiffness reduction. In the recent past, many research efforts were directed towards evaluation, modeling and treatment of ASR effects on structures but a comprehensive computational model is still lacking. In this paper, the ASR effect is implemented within the framework of the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM), which simulates concrete heterogeneous character at the scale of coarse aggregate pieces. The proposed formulation, entitled ASR-LDPM, allows precise and unique modeling of volumetric expansion; expansion anisotropy under applied load; non-uniform cracking distribution; concrete strength and stiffness degradation; alkali ion concentration effect; and temperature effects of concrete subjected to ASR. In addition, a unique advantage of this formulation is its ability to distinguish between the expansion directly related to ASR gel expansion and the one associated with cracking. Simulation of experimental data gathered from the literature demonstrates the ability of ASR-LDPM to predict accurately ASR-induced concrete deterioration.
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Alkali silica reaction